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年复一年

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http://www.ceh.ac.uk/news/news_archive/UKsoilmicrobialmap_2011_22.html

http://www.ceh.ac.uk/news/news_archive/UKsoilmicrobialmap_2011_22.html

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Distribution of British soil bacteria mapped for the first time

Distribution of British soil bacteria mapped for the first time

20 April 2011

Distribution of Alphaproteobacteria in British soilsBritain’s soil bacteria have been mapped for the first time in the most comprehensive study of a country’s soil biodiversity to date. The results are published today (20 April 2011) in the journal Environmental Microbiology.

To complete the map the scientific team, from the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH), Newcastle University and the University of Oxford, analysed over 1000 soil cores from England, Scotland and Wales, examining microbial DNA sequences in the laboratory to map bacterial biodiversity.

The research was carried out using samples collected for the Countryside Survey project coordinated by (CEH). 

The study concluded that bacterial diversity was strongly related to soil pH with acidic soils dominated by few taxa (groups of organisms). Below ground bacterial and above ground plant communities were closely related suggesting that soil bacteria are driven by the same ecological processes that govern higher organisms such as plants.

Bacteria constitute a major portion of the biodiversity in soils and play an essential role in maintaining the health of soil processes which underpin many valuable ecosystem services, including crop production and soil carbon storage.

Lead author Dr Robert Griffiths from the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology said, “Until now our understanding of how bacterial communities vary across the landscape has been extremely limited. Our results provide the first large scale assessment of bacterial communities across Britain’s soils and provide a baseline to further explore the complex relationships between soil bacterial biodiversity and ecosystem services. The new research has revealed how microbial distributions in British soils are linked to both soil pH and plant type.“

Co-author Professor Andy Whiteley, also from the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, said, “People don’t really think about bacteria in soils when they walk across a field or a park, they are microscopic and hidden from view, but the numbers are truly impressive; one footprint covers around 10 billion bacterial cells.  Bacteria are central to maintaining essential functions which we take for granted, such as soil fertility and cycling green house gases.”

Professor Whiteley added, “In our new study we’ve pulled back the earth’s skin to reveal how and why bacteria in the soil varies across the landscape.  To our surprise it appears that the same ecological processes that operate above ground, also seem to determine what happens below ground. We’re also beginning to understand the key functions that these hidden communities perform for us.”

Soil samples and DNA used in the study have been frozen providing a resource for future studies looking at the impacts of climate change on diversity and soil processes.

Co-author Professor Mark Bailey, Acting Director of the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, said, “CEH produced the first British national flood risk map in 1996. 15 years later we’ve produced the first soil microbial map for any country in the world. This year we will make the samples and raw data from the study available to other researchers, allowing the wider community to explore the exact functions that each of the thousands of species in every gram of soil carry out.”

The work was funded by the Natural Environment Research Council.

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英国首张土壤细菌分布图绘制完成 zz

文章来源:科技日报 王小龙 发布时间:2011-04-21 【字号: 小  中  大   

据美国每日科学网4月20日报道,英国的一个联合研究小组日前宣布,他们成功绘制了英国首张土壤细菌分布图,该图对英国土壤中的微生物进行了迄今为止最为全面和详尽的测定。相关论文发表在当日出版的《环境微生物学》杂志上。

该研究小组由来自英国生态与水文学中心、纽卡斯尔大学和牛津大学的多名科学家组成。研究人员对采集自英格兰、苏格兰以及威尔士的1000份土壤钻孔 样本进行检测、分析并绘制出了这幅土壤细菌分布图。研究显示,细菌多样性程度与土壤pH值密切相关,地下菌落和地面植物群落之间也存在着极为密切的关联。 细菌是土壤多样性的主要组成部分,在维持土壤健康方面发挥着重要作用,对种植业发展和固碳都有着十分重要的意义。

论文第一作者、英国生态与水文学中心的罗伯特·格里菲斯博士说:“迄今为止我们对细菌群落差异性的认识在整体上还十分有限。新的研究首次在宏观上对英国土壤细菌群落的分布状况进行了描述,为此后土壤细菌多样性以及土壤生态系统等更为复杂的研究奠定了基础。”

另一研究人员安迪·怀特利教授说:“外出散步时,我们绝大多数人都不会注意到脚下那些只有通过显微镜才能看到的细菌,但它们的数量和作用实际上都十 分惊人:一个脚印大的一块土壤中就有将近100亿个细菌,它们在保持土壤肥力、维持地球温室气体循环方面均发挥着不可替代的作用。新研究中我们试图揭开地 表中这些视野之外的微型群落,并以此来弄清菌群以怎样的方式存在以及为什么要这样,它们在人类生活中发挥着怎样的作用。”

论文的另一位合著者马克·贝利说:“英国生态与水文学中心曾在1996年时绘制了英国首张洪水风险地图。15年后,我们又绘制了世界首张土壤微生物分布地图。从今年开始我们将把部分土壤样品和原始数据提供给更多研究人员,以让它们发挥出更大的研究价值。”

此外,本次实验中所使用的部分土壤样品和细菌DNA还将被作为历史资料冷冻保存下来,以方便未来的研究人员研究气候变化对土壤细菌多样性的影响。

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昆明植物所研究发现兰科欺骗性传粉新机制

Flowers of Cypripedium fargesii (Orchidaceae) fool flat-footed flies (Platypezidae) by faking fungus-infected foliage 4月18日在线发表于美国《国家科学院院刊》(PNAS),
中国科学院昆明植物研究所博士生任宗昕在导师李德铢研究员和王红研究员的指导下,在云南东北部巧家药山国家级自然保护区,对中国特有珍稀濒危植物毛瓣杓兰(Cypripedium fargesii)开展了历时四年(2007-2010年)的传粉生态学研究。

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1919年4月17日,法国国民议会投票决定实行8小时工作制

1919年4月17日,法国国民议会投票决定实行8小时工作制

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有图有真像,真相?没有

有图有真像,真相?没有

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学而不思则,思而不学则

学而不思则,思而不学则

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yes man

yes man who care

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